What is the middle wall of partition in Ephesians 2

grafted-into-israelThe middle wall of partition –  Eph 2:14-16
This is one of the many verses used to say that God’s Commandments; His Law written down in the Old Testament has now been abolished in Christ. Popularly taught that the “middle wall” that separated us from God, is God’s Commandments/Laws, and that they were taken down through Christ’s sacrifice because they were hostile towards us.

OK, let’s test this common misunderstanding, incorporating sound archaeological evidence alongside historical context and hermeneutics to understand the true meaning of Paul’s words here. It is the author’s belief that this verse like countless other statements made by Paul has been misunderstood by the bulk of mainstream Christianity today.

Ephesians 2:14
For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition (between us.) by abolishing in His flesh the enmity, which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new man, thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity.

In this study, we will analyse this verse and apply the necessary research into to better understand what he is trying to teach the Ephesians. This study will focus on the following:

1. Context and background of the verse
2. What is the middle wall of partition/separation?
3. What is the “law of commandments in ordinances” which is called “enmity” by Paul?
4. Connecting the “law of commandments in ordinances” with the “middle wall of partition”
5. What are the “two” that are reconciled (made into one) through Messiah?
6. Conclusion

1. Context and background of the verse
Starting at the beginning of chapter 2 allows us to understand the overall context and background so we see why Paul is making these following points:

Eph 2:1-3
And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins; Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

Please note, Paul makes mention that the Ephesians were once dead in their trespasses and sins. They walked and followed after the adversary like the rest of the world. He specifically calls such a condition the “children of disobedience.”
Sin and disobedience is defined as breaking the law of God throughout scripture.

1 John 3:4
Everyone who makes a practice of sinning also practices lawlessness; sin is lawlessness.

So, here’s the point, if Paul here is referencing sin and disobedience, which is the breaking of the Law of God, it follows that there must have still been a Law of God in effect to break and not abolished as some claim.

Eph 2:4-7
But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

Eph 2:8-10
For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; Not of works, lest any man should boast. For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

We are saved by grace, not by works. But, in verse 10, he makes mention that we were created for doing works. Thus, we do good works not for our salvation, but because of our salvation. God prepared these good works beforehand, that we should walk in them. But, what are these good works that we are to walk in that were created so long ago? Well, the Bible defines that for us.

Deuteronomy 8:6
So you shall keep the commandments of the LORD (YHWH) your God by walking in his ways and by fearing him.

Deuteronomy 13:4
You shall walk after the LORD (YHWH) your God and fear him and keep his commandments and obey his voice, and you shall serve him and hold fast to him.

Deuteronomy 28:9
The LORD (YHWH) will establish you as a people holy to himself, as he has sworn to you, if you keep the commandments of the LORD (YHWH) your God and walk in his ways. “…holy to himself, as He as sworn to you…if we keep the commandments and walk in his ways.”

Do you recall Paul stating something similar in Ephesians chapter 1? Let’s look at verse 4.

Ephesians 1:4
…even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him.

Paul is referencing Deuteronomy 28:9 in Ephesians 1:4 and Ephesians 2:10.

Please see also:
Deuteronomy 30:16; Joshua 22:5; Judges 2:17; 1 Kings 2:3; 1 Kings 3:14; 1 Kings 6:12; 1 Kings 8:58; 1 Kings 11:38; 2 Kings 23:3; 2 Chronicles 17:4; 2 Chronicles 34:31.

Paul, in Ephesians 1:4, states that, we were chosen before the foundation of the world to be holy and blameless…meaning; this has been the plan all the way from the beginning of time. In chapter 2 verse 10, we learn that these good works were created for us beforehand. Being holy and blameless, and walking in the good works established from the beginning are not just concepts from the Old Testament that Paul is referencing. Such has always been true, and always will be true.

Luke 1:6
And they were both righteous before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and statutes of the Lord.

2 John 1:6
And this is love that we walk according to his commandments; this is the commandment, just as you have heard from the beginning, so that you should walk in it.

Eph 2:11-14
Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world: But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;

This is where we really need to start asking questions to understand the first-century Hebraic context of this text.

Who were the “Circumcision” and “Uncircumcision” found in verse 11? In the first century, the “Circumcision” was often referred to as the Jews. The “Uncircumcision” were often considered to be unbelieving Gentiles. Notice that at “in time past” they were called the “Uncircumcision.”

If I was to say that “in time past” I played for Manchester United FC. Does that mean I still play for Manchester United? No, it doesn’t. It would mean though, that at one time I did. Likewise, when the Gentiles were at “in time past” called the “Uncircumcision,” does that still mean that they are still the “Uncircumcision?” In the same way, the answer would still be no. At one time the Gentiles were of the “Uncircumcision,” but now they are of the “Circumcision.”

At “in time past,” when they were called the “uncircumcision” they were “separated from Christ, alienated from the commonwealth of Israel and strangers to the covenants of promise.”

So according to Paul, when they were of the “uncircumcision” they were not “citizens of the commonwealth of Israel, nor privy to the covenants of promise.” Did that change? Yes it did.

Ephesians 2:13
But now in Christ Jesus (Messiah Yeshua) you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.

Now the believing Gentiles are of the “Circumcision” and brought “near,” being “citizens of the commonwealth of Israel.” This is very different from how mainstream Christianity understands this. To state that the Gentiles entered into “Circumcision” and became “citizens of the commonwealth of Israel” is a completely foreign concept to most modern doctrines in Christianity. Most in mainstream Christianity would not consider themselves to be citizens of Israel. Yet, Paul says it right here in Ephesians 2.

Also, pay close attention to the language of “having once been far off, but now having been brought near.” – That is prophetic language specific to the lost tribes of the House of Israel having become “far off,” and were prophetically destined to someday become “brought near.” Read it again…the Gentiles were once of the “Uncircumcision” but now are of the “Circumcision.” Remember, circumcision was defined in the first century as to be the believing Jews. The Gentiles were once not citizens of the commonwealth of Israel, but now are citizens of the commonwealth of Israel, but God’s people never changed. It is those that are in covenant with God that are God’s people.

Israel has always had a purpose. Israel was always intended to be a light to the nations. Any revelation intended to mankind has always been through the Jewish people.

Isaiah 49:6
I will make you as a light for the nations that my salvation may reach to the end of the earth.

Isaiah 60:3
And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising.

But, what is “light?” We need to define Biblical metaphors using the Bible which our Messiah talked about:

Matthew 5:14-16
You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden. Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.

Again, what is “light?”

Proverbs 6:23
For the commandment is a lamp, And the law a light; Reproofs of instruction are the way of life,

Isaiah 8:20
To the law and to the testimony! If they do not speak according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

So then, what does it mean that Israel is to be a light for the nations? Israel is intended to send out the Law of God to the nations. What is the word for “nations” in the Hebrew language? It is goyim…Goyim means Gentiles in Hebrew with Strong’s often translating Goyim as nations, heathen, Gentiles, and or people.

A few hundred years before our Messiah, when the Old Testament was translated into Greek from the Hebrew, the Hebrew word goyim was translated into the Greek word ethnos, which again, means Gentiles.

The job of Israel was always intended to bring the Law of God to the Gentiles. Sadly though, that did not happen and Messiah had to show up and teach the Jews its purpose. The first century religious leadership of the Jews messed up very badly and made the process for Gentiles to come into the light (the Law of God) so difficult, that it became a barrier, an obstacle, literally creating a wall – a wall of hostility. The Law of God was rendered powerless through the doctrines of the first century Jewish leadership and their traditions.

Mark 7:8-9
“You leave the commandment of God and hold to the tradition of men.” And he said to them, You have a fine way of rejecting the commandment of God in order to establish your tradition!”

Because the Jews were so hostile to Gentiles, few Gentiles even wanted to understand the Law of God, the Torah (instructions), and when Gentiles were brave enough to approach mainstream leadership of the Jews in the first century, they made the process unnecessarily complicated. This in effect, rendered the Law of God powerless with the Gentiles, please remember that as we continue in Ephesians.

Another example of this can be found in Actss chapter 10 in which, Peter was shown a vision that he should not consider it unlawful to associate with Gentiles:

Acts 10:28
And he said to them, “You yourselves know how unlawful it is for a Jew to associate with or to visit anyone of another nation, but God has shown me that I should not call any person common or unclean.

The reason that Peter thought it was unlawful was not because of the Law of God, but because the Pharisees, the Orthodox Jewish leadership or Rabbinates that taught such through their oral law and their traditions of men. Peter mistakenly believed and followed the Pharisees in these matters.

Not only did Jewish leadership put up a spiritual wall between Jew and Gentile, they actually put up a literal wall as well in the temple courts called the “middle wall of separation” or s’yag (in Hebrew or soreg).

So, the Law of God, the torah and Gentile were literally and spiritually separated because of the actions of first-century Jewish leadership.

2. What is the middle wall of partition/separation?

Ephesians 2:14-15
For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; 15 Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;

A casual reading of these two verses does indeed portray such a perspective as valid that the “middle wall” mentioned in this verse is a metaphorical expression used to describe God’s Law, the torah, as a wall of hostility, although scripturally this couldn’t be further from the truth. The overall context of this verse lets us know that Paul was speaking of the division of Gentile and Jew (uncircumcised & circumcised) that existed in the late second-temple period.

We will look at a few pieces of evidence on this facts below.

Historical Archaeological Evidence

The s’yag (the middle wall of partition) was a low wall surrounding the Temple in Jerusalem and served as a boundary/partition beyond which only Jews (the Circumcision) were permitted entrance. The s’yag featured signs in a number of languages that warned unauthorized people against entering the area of the Holy Temple on pain of death.

soreg-forbid-signSome of the signs which were placed on the “soreg” have been discovered, of which one is pictured to the left. The inscription says “No outsider shall enter the protective enclosure around the sanctuary. And whoever is caught will only have himself to blame for the ensuing death”

Museo della civiltà romana a Roma (Eur) – Room 15 (Christianity) # 4 – Cast of the plaque forbidding any non-Jews to enter the second precinct of the Temple of Jerusalem. The original stands in the National Archaeological Museum in Istanbul.
(Translated by K. C. Hanson & Douglas E. Oakman)

Biblical Evidence
A) It is a known fActs, that there were Gentiles who went up to the Temple in Jerusalem to Worship God.

John 12:20
And there were certain Greeks among them that came up to worship at the feast:

Acts 8:27
And he arose and went: and, behold, a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch of great authority under Candace queen of the Ethiopians, who had the charge of all her treasure, and had come to Jerusalem for to worship,

B) The fActs that the Gentiles were kept separate from the Jews is also apparent:

Acts 21:28
Crying out, Men of Israel, help: This is the man, that teacheth all men every where against the people, and the law, and this place: and further brought Greeks also into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place.

Historical Evidence
In the “Wars of the Jews” written by the scholar Josephus Flavius around 75AD, says the following:
When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary,” and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court.
(A description of the temple – Book 5, Chapter 5, Verse 2)

Considering all of the above facts, it is safe to say, that Paul was referring to this “partitioning wall” in his letter to the Ephesians, as it was a prominent feature of the Jerusalem Temple at that time which restrained Gentiles from entering in. It is also important to note that this wall was not part of the original design God had given in the Torah, but was a later addition made by the Rabbinic Jews in authority to keep Gentiles from entering the temple precinct. Nowhere in the Old Testament would you be able to find of such a structure that separates people into two groups. But this had become the norm in the 2nd Temple times, and no Gentile could enter into the Temple precinct because of it.

3. What is the “law of commandments in ordinances” which is called “enmity” by Paul?
Most Christians would jump to the conclusion that the “law of commandments in ordinances” mentioned by Paul is none other than the Law of God (or torah) which was given through Moses in the Old Testament by our Heavenly Father. What most fail to see is that this term is completely different to “The Law of God” and “The Commandments of God”. To understand this difference we must look into the meaning of the word translated as “ordinances” and let scripture answer scripture.

In the Original Greek Manuscripts, the English word translated as “ordinances”, comes from the following: G1378 – δόγμα – dogma – From the base of G1380; a law (civil, ceremonial or ecclesiastical): – decree, ordinance. This word is seen only 5 times in the New Testament in the following verses:

Luke 2:1
And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree (G1378) from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.

Acts 16:4
And as they went through the cities, they delivered them the decrees (G1378) for to keep, that were ordained of the apostles and elders which were at Jerusalem.

Acts 17:7
Whom Jason hath received: and these all do contrary to the decrees (G1378) of Caesar, saying that there is another king, one Jesus.

Eph 2:15
Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances (G1378); for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;

Col 2:14
Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances (G1378) that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;

Looking at the above, one thing should become apparent the word “ordinance”, can only mean and be translated as “decree” – which means “an official order that has the force of law”. While God had given Commandments and His Law, decrees were laws that were man-made. If Paul was indeed speaking of God’s Law & Commandments, he would not have needed to use the word “ordinance”/”decree” in his letter. Paul could have only been referring to man-made orders (the takanot and ma’asim – or laws of men) through the term “ordinance”. These “ordinances” were indeed hostile, as they restrained anyone other than “Jews” worshiping God at the Temple. These ordinances made a clear separation between Jew and Gentile, by elevating one above the other, to the extent where Gentiles were looked down upon and were disassociated by Jews everywhere (John 4:9,27, 7:35, Acts 10:28, 11:2,3, Gal 2:12).

4. Connecting the “law of commandments in ordinances” with the “middle wall of partition”
It is a clear that Paul, in his letter to the Ephesians, speaks of the broken down “middle wall of partition” to be connected solely to “abolishing the law of commandments in ordinances”. As we have seen above, Paul was speaking of the physical wall of partition at the Temple, with man-made decrees that enforced a separation, this makes perfect sense. Paul was now saying that this separation that men had imposed on people was now no more because of Messiah.

As mentioned the purpose of Israel was to bring the Law of God to the nations, meaning the Gentiles. However, Paul, in Ephesians 2, to some, seems to be suggest at least to the majority of traditional orthodox Christian teachings is that the Law of God was a wall of hostility between Jew and Gentile, and thus our Messiah had to abolish the Law of God to make peace, and bring Jew and Gentile together.

How in the world can it be the purpose of Israel to bring the Gentiles the Law of God, yet the Law of God was the problem between Jews and Gentiles and had to be abolished.

How do we know this? Our Messiah clearly told us early on in his opening Sermon on the Mount:

Matthew 5:17
Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets…

That is rather clear and apparently completely contradictory to Ephesians 2 where it says: by abolishing the law of commandments expressed in ordinances. Paul clearly stated said that the law of God was not abolished:

John 1:17
For the law was given by Moses, AND grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

Romans 3:31
Do we then overthrow the law by this faith? By no means! On the contrary, we uphold the law.

Romans 7:22
For I delight in the law of God, in my inner being

Romans 7:25
Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ (Messiah Yeshua) our Lord! So then, I myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin.

1 John 5:2-3
By this we know that we love the children of God, when we love God and obey his commandments. For this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome.

1 John 2:3-6
And by this we know that we have come to know him, if we keep his commandments. Whoever says “I know him” but does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in him, but whoever keeps his word, in him truly the love of God is perfected. By this we may know that we are in him: whoever says he abides in him ought to walk in the same way in which he walked.

Ephesians 2:14-15 (ESV)
For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility by abolishing (katargeō) the law of commandments expressed in ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby killing the hostility.

Let’s review:
1) The purpose of Israel was to show the law of God to the Gentiles as a light.

2) Israel failed at showing the Gentiles the Law of God. Instead, they were oppressive to the Gentiles and were hostile to the Gentiles. So much so, that this hostility created a spiritual wall between Jew and Gentile, even to the degree of building a dividing wall in the temple courts expressing this sad mentality. This rendered the Law of God powerless with the Gentiles, meaning the Law of God had no influence or power with the Gentiles.

3) Our Messiah showed up, and in Matthew 5 he reminded Israel that they are to be a light to the Gentiles, showing them the good works that they are to do.

The primary definition for the Greek word translated as “abolished” in verse 15 means to render powerless, to deprive of strength and force, influence, and power and “abolished” is the secondary or less common definition. So, why didn’t translators go with the primary definition of the word? We cannot state for certain, but most translators are biased into believing that our Messiah did indeed abolish the Law of God.

However, the primary definition offers a slightly different spin on the particular Greek word used in Ephesians 2:15.

Strongs – katargeō
1. to render idle, unemployed, inactive, inoperative
A. to cause a person or thing to have no further efficiency B. to deprive of force, influence, power
And in case for some reason Strong’s appears biased to you. We offer an alternate Lexicon as well:

Thayer’s Greek Lexicon – katargeō
1. to render idle, unemployed, inactive, inoperative, to deprive of its strength, make barren. To cause a person or a thing to have no further efficiency; to deprive of force, influence or power.

Again, the first definition. “To render idle, unemployed, inactive, inoperative, to deprive of its strength, make barren. To cause a person or a thing to have no further efficiency; to deprive of force, influence, or power.” Basically saying the same thing as Strong’s.

So, in applying that primary definition for the word, here is what happens. Let’s read Ephesians 2:14-15 again with this information.

Ephesians 2:14-15 (ESV)
For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility by abolishing rendering powerless the law of commandments expressed in ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby killing the hostility. Do you see how that fits?

The Law of God was not hostile to the Gentiles. That would be absurd, would it not? The Law of God is not hostile to those who come into the faith. Read Psalm 119 for example. Our Messiah abolished the hostility between Jew and Gentile; and did not abolish the Law of God.

The hostility between Jew and Gentile was rendering powerless the Law of God for the Gentiles, defeating the purpose of Israel, which was to bring the law as a light to the Gentiles. The Gentiles were to not be strangers or aliens and subject to the hostility of the Jews, but citizens of the commonwealth of Israel. They were to be made one together.

5. What are the “two” that are reconciled (made into one) through Messiah?
What puts this argument completely in place, is the idea Paul speaks about in connection with the broken down wall of partition. Paul says that Christ has “made both one” and again, that “twain one new man”. What or who are these two parties which are made one?

Let’s again review the facts that we know already
1. The context of the Chapter speaks about how, Gentiles had no part in the covenants of promise and they were excluded from the citizenship of Israel, before they were saved through God’s Grace and sacrifice of Christ.

2. History proves that there was indeed, a physical partitioning wall at the Temple which kept Gentiles separate from Jews. Paul spoke of this wall to have been broken down through Christ’s sacrifice.

3. The original Greek wording seen in the verse in question, is specifically speaking of man-made decrees, and not God’s Law. There were many such laws/decrees imposed on people by the ruling parties, such as the Pharisees.

If Paul is speaking of this partitioning of Gentiles and Jews, and that this “man-made” partitioning or “middle wall” was not in effect because of Messiah, what are these 2 parties he is referring to? Is he not saying that there is no more division? There are no more Jews & Gentiles? That no one can keep the covenants of promise from the Gentiles and that Gentiles are now fellow citizens of the commonwealth and covenants ofIsrael?

Consider the following:
1. Christ came to gather Jews & Gentiles into one nation
John 11:49
And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all, Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not. And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation; And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.

2. Christ said there would be one flock under one shepherd
John 10:16
And I have other sheep that are not of this fold. I must bring them also, and they will listen to my voice. So there will be one flock, one shepherd.

3. Paul says Gentiles are fellow heirs and partakers of the promises given to Israel
Eph 3:6
This mystery is that the Gentiles are fellow heirs, members of the same body, and partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel.

4. Paul says that the Gentiles are grafted into the Olive tree which is Israel
Rom 11:17
But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although a wild olive shoot, were grafted in among the others and now share in the nourishing root of the olive tree, (Please read the whole of Chapter 11)

5. Paul says that there are no more divisions such as Jew & Gentile – we are all one in Christ
Gal 3:28
There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.

In short, this is what Paul is trying to say:
As sinful Gentiles, we had no part in the covenants of promise, and were also excluded from the citizenship of Israel. But when Christ came and saved us through God’s Grace, the partitioning wall that kept us outside was broken down. No man-made decree can keep us away from enjoying the covenants of promise or the Citizenship of Israel, as all who believe in God are now made into one people. We were once hostile to God, but now through the blood of Messiah, we have been drawn into His sanctuary, not to be separated ever again.

6. Conclusion
Even though Eph 2:14-16, is usually used as a proof text for “the Law of God being done away”, every effort in the above study to understand this passage in its original historical and biblical context. This has led us to the conclusion that Paul was speaking of a separation of God’s People, rather than an abolishing of God’s Law. Paul used a physical wall of separation to show how Gentiles had no part with God, before Christ. He further showed the Ephesian congregation, that the man-made decrees of separation were no more in power, because of God’s grace, as he had drawn believers, both Jew & Gentile unto Him, to make both one in Him. There is no more gentile. No more Jew. No separate flocks or peoples – Only His people “Israel. If we consider ourselves His people, we are “Israel” – let us not separate, what God has made one, through the sacrifice of Yeshua.

For he himself is our peace, who made both groups (Yehudi and Israelite
“goy”) into one, and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall (the
s’yag—oral law fence), by abolishing in his flesh the enmity, which is the
law of commandments contained in ordinances (takanot ma’asim—laws
of men), that in himself he might make the two (Yehudi and Israelite
“goy”) into one new man (through the resurrection of
Yeshua), thus establishing peace, and might reconcile them both in one
body (a hint to Hosea 1:10-11) to Elohim through the execution stake,
by it having put to death the enmity (the fence of the takanot and
ma’asim). And he came and preached peace to you who were far away
(Israelite goyim scattered and assimilated among the nations of
the earth), and peace to those who were near (Yehudim); for through
him we both have our access in one Ruach to the Father. So then you are
no longer strangers and aliens,1 but you are fellow citizens with the saints
(holy ones), and are of Elohim’s household…
(Ephesians 2:14-19).