What is the Passover and its significance
Passover in one sentence, was the act whereby Yhvh brought Israel out of Egypt bringing them salvation and deliverance from slavery and bondage to Pharaoh, through the blood of a Lamb.
From Exodus 7-10, Yhvh brings 9 plagues on Egypt and Pharaoh, through Moses. After enduring much destruction and pain, Pharaoh would still not let “Israel – His people go. Finally, Yhvh tells Moses that He will bring one more Plague on Egypt (Ex 11:1-6).
Exo 11:1 And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
Exo 11:5 And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.
Exo 11:6 And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.
In Ex 12:21-30, Moses provides precise details and guidelines that Israel is to kill a lamb, and apply it’s blood as a sign so that death would not come into their houses. Yhvh also said that this is His Passover (Ex 12:11), not Israel’s and that it was an ordinance / appointment forever (Ex 12:14).
When exactly is the Passover
These precise and specific details provided the nation of israel on how they were to determine the following chronologically:
Exo 12:2 This month of passover would commence the beginning of the new year
Exo 12:3 The day of the month in which the Passover lamb would be taken to be inspected for sacrifice.
Exo 12:6 The day of the month in which the Passover lamb would be killed.
Exo 12:6 The exact hour of the day in which the Passover lamb would be killed.
Exo 12:14 Established as an ordinance for ever
Exo 12:1 LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt
Exo 12:2 This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.
Exo 12:3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house:
Exo 12:6 And ye shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month: and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening.
Exo 12:14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
When is the Passover Seder correctly observed based on scriptural Biblical timing? Is the Passover supposed to be eaten in: a) the night before the 14th daylight (Ex 12:2), or in b) the night after the 14th daylight of Nisan/Aviv?
To answer this question and fully understand the chronology and the exact timing of the Passover and the Exodus from Egypt to the death, burial and resurrection of the Messiah in the first-century and how they all perfectly correlate and synchronise we must first understand the correct, scriptural and biblical definition of “evening/setting and morning/daybreak” phrase outlined in the literal day of creation as first defined in Gen. 1:3-5.
Understanding the calendar day to be from dawn to dawn is essential to understanding nearly everything in biblical chronology having to do with days. Correct observance of the Torah is otherwise bound to go off track, or at the very least to be rendered confusing. Correct understanding of the Levitical services and how days are timed for offerings depends wholly on the dawn to dawn day. Finally, the dawn to dawn day is necessary to properly understand Messiah’s death and resurrection and the prophesies of the ‘third day.’
So when does a Genesis day start? At evening? Or morning?
Gen 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
Gen 1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.
Gen 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.
And the evening and the morning were the first day.
Let there be light . . was light . . . saw the light . . . was good . . . divided light from darkness . . . the light Day . . .
Here a day is defined as the light, and so it is limited to the points of dawn and dusk. The light that was seen first was the dawn, a mixture of light and darkness. The dawn is further defined as a separating of the light from the darkness of Gen. 1:2. When the separation is complete, the full light is called ‘day,’ and logically this ends when the light is expunged. The complete definition of a full day is then described as follows: darkness he called night . . . then there was evening . . . then there was morning . . the first day
Day 2 . . . And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.
Day 3 . . .And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the third day.
Day 4 . . . And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.
Day 5 . . . And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.
Day 6 . . . And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.
There is only creation activity during the day (light).
AND there was evening, AND there was morning.
Each following day begins where the first day ended – morning:
We see this same pattern on each day “And the evening and the morning” second day, third day, fourth day, fifth day, and the sixth day.
Light = (he calleth) Day and Darkness = (he calleth) Night … remember this.
So let’s define evening and morning:Definition of “evening” in Hebrew:
Basic Strong’s Concordance Usage 101:
The word “evening” #H6153 according to Strong’s Concordance means:
1) evening, night, sunset
a) evening, sunset
So which is it? Evening or sunset or night?
“Evening and sunset” is the primary meaning and “night” is the secondary meaning. To get a clearer understanding of the meaning for “evening” we have to look at the “root word” from which it is derived. That Hebrew word is “ARAB” which means “to grow dark”. The word night is not a good definition of the word “evening”.
The word evening comes from the Hebrew root word “arab” which means “to grow dark”. However, there is a separate Hebrew word for “night” and that word is “layil”.
Definition of “Morning” in Hebrew:
Now Let’s read Genesis 1:1-4 again using light = day and darkness = night from Genesis 1:5
1 In the beginning Elohim created the heavens and the earth.
2 And the earth was (had become or became) without form, and void; and night was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of Elohim moved upon the face of the waters.
3 And Elohim said, Let there be day: and there was day.
4 And Elohim saw the day, that it was good: and Elohim divided the day from the night.
5 And it came to be evening (growing dark) and it came to be morning (growing light): the first Day.
Notice the translation from The Scriptures and The Hebrew Interlinear Bible of Genesis 1:5
Just because the darkness (night) existed on earth first doesn’t necessarily mean that the day begins at sunset or in darkness. The evening cannot exist unless there is light (day)first. In fact the evening is part of the day, but we’ll prove this later. The evening marks the ending of a day going into the night. The morning marks the period where night ends and day begins. And “the evening and the morning” are transitional periods that separate the day from the night.
light/day – ereb/arab – darkness/night – boqer – light/day
When the light (day) was in the process of being absorbed by darkness (night), it became evening (ereb/arab), and the coming of light brought morning, the completion of a day. A 24-hour period should be reckoned from morning to morning consisting of The Day and The Night.
C. H. Leupold (Exposition of Genesis, Vol. 1, pp. 57-58) states: [Gen. 1:5], presents not an addition of items but the conclusion of a progression. On this day there had been the creation of heaven and earth in the rough, then the creation of light, the approval of light, the separation of day and night. Now with evening the divine activities ceased: they are works of light not works of darkness. The evening “erbhof” merges into night and the night terminates with morning. But by the time morning is reached, the first day is concluded, as the account says succinctly, ‘the first day,’ and everything is in readiness for the second day’s task. For ‘evening’ marks the conclusion of the day, and ‘morning’ marks the conclusion of the night. It is these conclusions, which terminate the preceding, that are to be made prominent.”
Scripture habitually mentions ‘day’ and then ‘night’, according to the order given in Genesis. Here is a list of usages in that order: Gen. 8:22, 31:39, 31:40; Ex. 10:13, 13:21, 13:22, 40:38; Lev. 6:20, 8:35; Num. 9:16, 9:21; 11:32. Numbers 11:32 indicates the day is from daybreak to daybreak,
And the people rose up all that day, and all the night, and all the day after (וַיָּקָם הָעָם כָּל־הַיּוֹם הַהוּא וְכָל־הַלַּיְלָה וְכֹל יוֹם הַמָּחֳרָת). The words ‘all the day after’ follow immediately the words ‘and all the night.’ The NAS renders הַמָּחֳרָת ‘the next day’ as most other translations. The Scripture continues to put day first: Num. 14:14; Deu. 1;33; 16:4. In Deu. 21:23 the order is changed, but only in the text. The actual day mentioned is before the night. Deu. 28:66; Josh. 1:8; Judges 6:27, 19:9, 11; 1Sam. 14:24, 19:24, 28:20; 2Sam. 21:10; 1Kings 8:59; 1Chron. 9:33; 2Chron. 6:28; Neh. 1:6, 4:9, 9:12, 19. Job 3:3; 5:14; Psa. 1:2, 19:2, 22:2, 32:4. Psalm 42:3 says
My tears have been bread to me by day and by night while they are saying to me all the day, ‘Where is your Almighty.’ ‘All the day’ is parallel to ‘by day and by night’ defining the whole day. Also Psa. 55:10, 74:16, 77:2, 78:14, 88:1, 121:6; Eccl. 8:16; Isa. 4:5, 21:8, 28:19, 38:12, 13, 60:11, 62:6; Jer. 9:1, 16:13; 31:35. Jeremiah 33:20 implies the order of day and then night is a covenant to be ‘at their appointed time’; Jer. 33:25, 36:30; Lam. 2:18; Hos. 4:5; Amos 5:8; Zech. 14:7;
Does the evening start the day (going into night) or is it a part of the day (light)?
John 11:9-10 (King James Version) Understanding The Day
9 The Messiah answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbled not, because he seeth the light of this world. 10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbled, because there is no light in him.
When words like “tomorrow“, “the next day“, “in that day“, or “the same day“ are used in the Bible, this indicates that the evening is a continuation of the day and not the beginning of a new day. You’ll be able to see this clearly in the following verses.
Judges 19:9 (King James Version)
9 And when the man rose up to depart, he, and his concubine, and his servant, his father in law, the damsel’s father, said unto him, Behold, now the day (light) draweth toward evening (sunset), I pray you tarry all night (night comes after sunset): behold, the day(light) groweth to an end (at sunset), lodge here, that thine heart may be merry; and to morrow (next day of light) get you early on your way, that thou mayest go home.
Mark 4:35 (King James Version)
35 And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side. The words “same day and even” cannot be used this way if “even” starts a new day
John 20:19 (King James Version)
19 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came The Messiah and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. The words “same day and evening” cannot be used this way if “evening” starts a new day.
Jonah 4:7 (New King James Version)
7 But as morning dawned the next day The Most High prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered. The day starts in the morning at daybreak.
Exodus 18:13 [King James Version]
 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening..
Leviticus 7:15 (King James Version)
15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning.
Morning begins a new day; otherwise it would have said “none should be left until evening”, if evening begins the new day.
1 Samuel 19:11 (King James Version)
11 Saul also sent messengers unto David’s house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David’s wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life tonight, tomorrow thou shalt be slain. If the evening starts the day, tomorrow would be the following night and not the following morning.
Remember this verse
John 11:9 (King James Version)
9 The Messiah answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.
Matthew 20:1-16 (King James Version) The Master’s Vineyard
1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.
2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard.
3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace,
4 And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way.
5 Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise.
6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle?
7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive.
8 So when even was come (the 12th hour), the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first.
9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny.
10 But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny.
11 And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house,
12 Saying, These last have wrought but one hour (from the 11th hour until the 12th hour), and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day.
13 But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny?
14 Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee.
15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good?
16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.
With this now established let us go to Exodus 12:6. The Passover lamb was to be slain ‘between the settings’ (בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם) on the 14th day. The Hebrew word baeyn (בֵּין) means ‘between.’ Ha- (הָ) means ‘the,’ and ervayim is is made of the word erev (עֶרֶב) and the dual ending ayim. The dual ending is often confused with the plural ending iym. The dual ending means a plural made up of two. The word עֶרֶב means the ‘setting’, or the ‘going down’ of a light source.
In English we say the sun is ‘setting’ or ‘going down’ perhaps up to an hour before it actually disappears. We might say that the sun is ‘declining’ at anytime after noon, but not ‘setting.’ Biblical Hebrew did not make such a technical distinction as English between ‘declining’ just after noon, and setting about an hour before sunset. The same word עֶרֶב is used to refer to all phases of setting. In some dialects of English ‘evening’ refers to the afternoon as well as time after sunset, and so comes closer to the Hebrew erev.
Erev always refers to the setting of the light at the end of a literal day. So the dusk light refers to light contained in one literal day, dawn to dusk. “Then Elohim called the light day.” The light is not only a visible source. It is all the light from dawn to dusk that is defined as ‘a day.’ It is only by legal tradition that a literal ‘day’ is said to end at sunset. It should be understood, however, that as much dusk as there is belongs to the literal day going before the night begins. So if a legal day is to end at sunset, then the ‘dusk’ is not being counted as part of the legal ‘day.’ If the dusk is regarded as ‘day’ then the dusk goes with the literal day before it.
These considerations show that baeyn ha-ervayim means a time in the middle of the setting of the light, beginning at the earliest at noon and ending at the latest with the last dusk on the 14th day of the first month, the month of Passover. The dusk associated with the night before the 14th day belongs to the 13th day. Many translations of the phrase baeyn ha-ervayim interpret it to mean ‘twilight.’ While it may be true that ‘between the settings’ includes twilight, it only means the ‘twilight’ belonging to the literal day going before the twilight. Also, the translation ‘twilight’ is not literal. It is an interpretation, and it is clearly too restrictive because it excludes all time before sunset that the sun is ‘setting.’ The usage of the term by most Jews applies it to the afternoon, which is when the Passover offerings were actually brought. The Jewish Historian Josephus, writes about the Passover practice during the time of Messiah, “they slay their sacrifices, from the ninth hour till the eleventh” (Jos. Wars 6:423). The hours are counted from daybreak, so in Roman time this is 3 pm to 5 pm as a type of Passover lamb, Messiah died at the ninth hour, which is 3 pm.
Deliverance from the bondage of sin
On the 14th day of Nisan/Aviv, on the eve of Passover – Pesach 34 A.D, again, exactly between the settings – about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani Mat 27:46. The blood of the promised sacrificial Lamb is shed. This is the redemption YHVH has provided. It again brings redemption process to all called His.
This will now lead us to understand the timing of the Exodus from Egypt, the next appointed time the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the correlation with the death, and resurrection of the Messiah, and the 3 days and 3 nights.